Non-Coding RNAs in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Regulation of Androgen Receptor Signaling and Cancer Metabolism

Int J Mol Sci. 2015 Dec 4;16(12):28943-78. doi: 10.3390/ijms161226138.


Hormone-refractory prostate cancer frequently relapses from therapy and inevitably progresses to a bone-metastatic status with no cure. Understanding of the molecular mechanisms conferring resistance to androgen deprivation therapy has the potential to lead to the discovery of novel therapeutic targets for type of prostate cancer with poor prognosis. Progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is characterized by aberrant androgen receptor (AR) expression and persistent AR signaling activity. Alterations in metabolic activity regulated by oncogenic pathways, such as c-Myc, were found to promote prostate cancer growth during the development of CRPC. Non-coding RNAs represent a diverse family of regulatory transcripts that drive tumorigenesis of prostate cancer and various other cancers by their hyperactivity or diminished function. A number of studies have examined differentially expressed non-coding RNAs in each stage of prostate cancer. Herein, we highlight the emerging impacts of microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs linked to reactivation of the AR signaling axis and reprogramming of the cellular metabolism in prostate cancer. The translational implications of non-coding RNA research for developing new biomarkers and therapeutic strategies for CRPC are also discussed.

Keywords: androgen receptor; cancer metabolism; castration-resistant prostate cancer; long non-coding RNAs; micro RNAs; non-coding RNA.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Epigenesis, Genetic
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prostate / metabolism*
  • Prostate / pathology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant / genetics*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant / metabolism*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant / pathology
  • RNA, Untranslated / genetics
  • RNA, Untranslated / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Androgen / genetics
  • Receptors, Androgen / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction*


  • AR protein, human
  • RNA, Untranslated
  • Receptors, Androgen