Infectious Entry Pathway of Enterovirus B Species

Viruses. 2015 Dec 7;7(12):6387-99. doi: 10.3390/v7122945.

Abstract

Enterovirus B species (EV-B) are responsible for a vast number of mild and serious acute infections. They are also suspected of remaining in the body, where they cause persistent infections contributing to chronic diseases such as type I diabetes. Recent studies of the infectious entry pathway of these viruses revealed remarkable similarities, including non-clathrin entry of large endosomes originating from the plasma membrane invaginations. Many cellular factors regulating the efficient entry have recently been associated with macropinocytic uptake, such as Rac1, serine/threonine p21-activated kinase (Pak1), actin, Na/H exchanger, phospholipace C (PLC) and protein kinase Cα (PKCα). Another characteristic feature is the entry of these viruses to neutral endosomes, independence of endosomal acidification and low association with acidic lysosomes. The biogenesis of neutral multivesicular bodies is crucial for their infection, at least for echovirus 1 (E1) and coxsackievirus A9 (CVA9). These pathways are triggered by the virus binding to their receptors on the plasma membrane, and they are not efficiently recycled like other cellular pathways used by circulating receptors. Therefore, the best "markers" of these pathways may be the viruses and often their receptors. A deeper understanding of this pathway and associated endosomes is crucial in elucidating the mechanisms of enterovirus uncoating and genome release from the endosomes to start efficient replication.

Keywords: coxsackievirus A9; coxsackievirus B3; echovirus; entry; signaling.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Endocytosis
  • Endosomes / virology
  • Enterovirus B, Human / physiology*
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions
  • Virus Attachment*
  • Virus Internalization*