Objective: The burden of cancer among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is substantial and increasing. We assessed the prevalence of modifiable cancer risk factors among adult PLWHA in Western high-income countries since 2000.
Methods: We searched PubMed to identify articles published in 2011-2013 reporting prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, overweight/obesity, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) among PLWHA. We conducted random effects meta-analyses of prevalence for each risk factor, including estimation of overall, sex-specific, and HIV-transmission-group-specific prevalence. We compared prevalence in PLWHA with published prevalence estimates in US adults.
Results: The meta-analysis included 113 publications. Overall summary prevalence estimates were current smoking, 54% [95% confidence interval (CI) 49-59%] versus 20-23% in US adults; cervical high-risk HPV infection, 46% (95% CI 34-58%) versus 29% in US females; oral high-risk HPV infection, 16% (95% CI 10-23%) versus 4% in US adults; anal high-risk HPV infection (men who have sex with men), 68% (95% CI 57-79%), with no comparison estimate available; chronic HCV infection, 26% (95% CI 21-30%) versus 0.9% in US adults; and HBV infection, 5% (95% CI 4-5%) versus 0.3% in US adults. Overweight/obesity prevalence (53%; 95% CI 46-59%) was below that of US adults (68%). Meta-analysis of alcohol consumption prevalence was impeded by varying assessment methods. Overall, we observed considerable study heterogeneity in prevalence estimates.
Conclusion: Prevalence of smoking and oncogenic virus infections continues to be extraordinarily high among PLWHA, indicating a vital need for risk factor reduction efforts.