Purpose/aim: This study evaluates the efficacy of grafted adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on blade-type implants in improving osseointegration in rat femurs using a low-density bone model.
Materials and methods: After isolating and expanding ADSCs, twice-passaged cells were seeded on blade-type implants on culture plates. Osteogenic induction of grafted cells began after attaching cells to the prepared titanium surfaces and it continued for 4 days. The scaffolds were then implanted in the femurs of Wistar rats. Osteogenic differentiation of these cells was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and alizarin red staining of the mineralized extracellular matrix. After 8 weeks, histological and histomorphometric evaluations of undecalcified resin sections (bone-implant contact [BIC] % and bone mineral index [BMI]) were performed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.
Results: Alizarin red staining in conjunction with gene expression results confirmed osteogenic differentiation. Histomorphometric assessment using scanning electron microscopy demonstrated improved BIC% and BMI near the treated surface compared with the untreated surface.
Conclusions: The complex of differentiated grafted ADSCs and extracellular matrix and the macrodesign and microdesign of the implant can improve osseointegration in low-density bone.
Keywords: Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells; bone; implant; osseointegration; titanium.