Objectives: Bariatric patients are at risk of protein deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine possible benefits of postoperative protein supplementation weight reduction, body composition, and protein status.
Methods: Twenty obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery were randomized either to the protein (PRO) group, which received a daily protein supplement over 6 months postoperatively, or to the control (CON) group, which received an isocaloric placebo in a double-blind fashion. Data on protein and energy intake, body weight, body composition, blood proteins, and grip force was collected preinterventionally and at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively.
Results: In both groups body weight was significantly reduced to a similar extent (after 6 months: PRO group 25.4 ± 7.2%, CON group 20.9 ± 3.9%; intergroup comparison P > 0.05). Protein intake was steadily increased in the PRO group, but not in the CON group, and reached maximum at month 6 (25.4 ± 3.7% of energy intake versus 15.8 ± 4.4%; P < 0.001). In the PRO group, body fat mass loss was higher than that in the CON group (79% of absolute weight loss versus 73%; P = 0.02) while lean body mass loss was less pronounced (21% versus 27%, P = 0.05). Blood proteins and grip force did not differ at any time point between the two groups.
Conclusions: The present study suggests that protein supplementation after bariatric surgery improves body composition by enhancing loss of body fat mass and reducing loss of lean body mass within the 6 months follow up.
Keywords: Body composition; Body fat mass; Gastric bypass; Lean body mass; Muscle mass; Protein deficiency; Sleeve gastrectomy.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.