Timed 360° Turn Test for Assessing People With Chronic Stroke

Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2016 Apr;97(4):536-544. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2015.11.010. Epub 2015 Dec 13.


Objectives: To investigate (1) the intrarater, interrater, and test-retest reliability of the timed 360° turn test in subjects with stroke; (2) the concurrent validity of the timed 360° turn test by exploring its correlation with other measures of stroke-specific impairments; and (3) the cutoff times that best discriminate individuals with stroke from healthy older adults.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: University-based rehabilitation center.

Participants: Individuals with chronic stroke (n=72) and healthy individuals (n=35) of similar age (N=107).

Interventions: Not applicable.

Main outcome measures: The timed 360° turn test was administered along with the Fugl-Meyer assessment of the lower extremity, measurement of muscle strength of ankle dorsiflexors and plantarflexors using a handheld dynamometer, Berg Balance Scale, limit of stability test, five times sit-to-stand (FTSTS) test, 10-m walk test, and timed Up and Go (TUG) test.

Results: The 360° turn times showed excellent intrarater, interrater, and test-retest reliability in individuals with stroke. A minimal detectable change of .76 seconds was found for subjects turning toward the affected side and 1.22 seconds for subjects turning toward the unaffected side. The 360° turn times were found to correlate significantly with Fugl-Meyer assessment of the lower extremity scores, dosiflexor strength of the affected ankle, plantarflexor strength of both ankles, FTSTS test times, balance performance, gait speed, and TUG test times. The 360° turn times of 3.43 to 3.49 seconds were shown to discriminate reliably between individuals with stroke and healthy older adults.

Conclusions: The timed 360° turn test is a reliable and an easily administered clinical tool to assess the turning ability of subjects with chronic stroke.

Keywords: Rehabilitation; Stroke.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Ankle Joint
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chronic Disease
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Disability Evaluation*
  • Exercise Test / methods*
  • Female
  • Gait / physiology
  • Healthy Volunteers
  • Humans
  • Lower Extremity / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Muscle Strength / physiology
  • Muscle Strength Dynamometer
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiopathology
  • Observer Variation
  • Paresis / etiology
  • Paresis / physiopathology
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Stroke / complications
  • Stroke / physiopathology*
  • Time Factors
  • Walking / physiology