Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations in Children Progressing to Autoimmunity and Clinical Type 1 Diabetes

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Feb;101(2):723-9. doi: 10.1210/jc.2015-3504. Epub 2015 Dec 22.


Context: The role of vitamin D in the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains controversial.

Objective: The objective of the investigation was to study whether there are detectable differences in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations between children who later progressed to T1D (cases) and matched children who remained nondiabetic and negative for islet autoantibodies (controls) when followed up from birth until disease onset.

Design: A total of 3702 prospective serum samples from 252 children were measured for 25(OH)D from the age of 3 months onward using an enzyme immunoassay. Differences between the groups were compared by the mixed-model analysis of variance.

Setting: T1D prediction and prevention study clinics in Turku, Oulu, and Tampere University Hospitals, Finland, participated in the study.

Participants: By the end of 2012, all 126 case children were diagnosed with T1D. The control children (n = 126) were matched for age, sex, study site, and human leukocyte antigen-HLA-DQ-conferred risk for T1D.

Main outcome measure: Median circulating 25(OH)D concentration (nanomoles per liter) was measured.

Results: The patterns of variation in circulating 25(OH)D concentrations were similar between cases and controls and did not correlate with the age at seroconversion to autoantibody positivity (P = .79) or disease onset (P = .13). The median concentration of all collected samples did not differ between case and control children (66.6 nmol/L [range 14.0-262.8] vs 67.4 nmol/L [range 19.9-213.0]) P = .56).

Conclusions: This study shows that serum 25(OH)D concentrations are not associated with the development of T1D in Finland.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Autoantibodies / analysis
  • Autoimmunity / immunology*
  • Body Mass Index
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood*
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Finland
  • HLA-DQ Antigens / analysis
  • Humans
  • Hydroxycholecalciferols / blood*
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Prospective Studies


  • Autoantibodies
  • HLA-DQ Antigens
  • Hydroxycholecalciferols