Extended field-of-view and increased-signal 3D holographic illumination with time-division multiplexing

Opt Express. 2015 Dec 14;23(25):32573-81. doi: 10.1364/OE.23.032573.


Phase spatial light modulators (SLMs) are widely used for generating multifocal three-dimensional (3D) illumination patterns, but these are limited to a field of view constrained by the pixel count or size of the SLM. Further, with two-photon SLM-based excitation, increasing the number of focal spots penalizes the total signal linearly--requiring more laser power than is available or can be tolerated by the sample. Here we analyze and demonstrate a method of using galvanometer mirrors to time-sequentially reposition multiple 3D holograms, both extending the field of view and increasing the total time-averaged two-photon signal. We apply our approach to 3D two-photon in vivo neuronal calcium imaging.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Holography / methods*
  • Humans
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional*
  • Lighting / methods*
  • Optometry / methods*
  • Photic Stimulation / methods