Outcomes of Endobronchial Valve Treatment Based on the Precise Criteria of an Endobronchial Catheter for Detection of Collateral Ventilation under Spontaneous Breathing

Respiration. 2016;91(1):69-78. doi: 10.1159/000442886. Epub 2015 Dec 24.


Background: Endoscopic lung volume reduction with valves is a valid therapeutic option for COPD patients with severe emphysema. The exclusion of interlobar collateral ventilation (CV) is an important predictor of clinical success.

Objectives: Recently, a catheter-based endobronchial in vivo measurement system (Chartis, Pulmonx, USA) has become routine in the clinical evaluation of CV status in target lobes, but the criteria for phenotyping CV by Chartis evaluation have not yet been defined. We asked the questions, how many phenotypes can be identified using Chartis, what are the exact criteria to distinguish them, and how do the Chartis phenotypes respond to valve insertion?

Methods: In a retrospective study, 406 Chartis assessments of 166 patients with severe COPD were analyzed. Four Chartis phenotypes, CV positive (CV+), CV negative (CV-), low flow (LF) and low plateau were identified. Fifty-two patients without CV were treated with valves and followed for 3 months.

Results: The Chartis phenotypes were discriminated with respect to decline in expiratory peak flow, increase in resistance index and change in total exhaled volume after 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 min of measurement time (p < 0.0001, ANOVA), and the cutoff criteria were defined accordingly. To examine the application of these phenotyping criteria, students applied them to 100 Chartis assessments, and they demonstrated almost perfect inter- and intraobserver agreements (x03BA; > 0.9). Compared to baseline, CV- and LF patients with ipsilateral CV- lobe showed an improvement in FEV1 (p < 0.05), vital capacity (p < 0.05) and target lobe volume reduction (p < 0.005) after valve insertion.

Conclusion: This study describes the most prevalent Chartis phenotypes.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Bronchoscopy / methods*
  • Catheterization
  • Catheters
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lung / diagnostic imaging
  • Lung / surgery*
  • Male
  • Phenotype
  • Pneumonectomy / methods*
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / diagnosis
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / physiopathology
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / surgery
  • Pulmonary Emphysema / diagnosis
  • Pulmonary Emphysema / physiopathology
  • Pulmonary Emphysema / surgery*
  • Pulmonary Ventilation*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Surgical Instruments*
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed