The effects of garlic-supplemented diets on skin mucosal immune responses, stress resistance and growth performance of the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus) fry

Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016 Feb:49:79-83. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2015.12.021. Epub 2015 Dec 15.


This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of garlic supplementation on some skin mucus immune parameters, mucus antimicrobial activity and growth performance of the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) fry. Fish (1 ± 0.07 g) were divided into four groups fed diets containing 0 (control), 5, 10 and 15 g kg(-1) garlic for 8 weeks. The results showed that there was a significant increase in weight gain and specific growth rate in those fish fed garlic diets compared with the control (P < 0.05). Condition factor was not significantly affected by garlic dosage. At the end of trial, the epidermal mucus protein level, alkaline phosphatase and antimicrobial activity against 2 g-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens) and gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus faecium and Micrococcus luteus) were measured. Skin mucus alkaline phosphatase, protein levels and antimicrobial activity were increased following garlic administration, and the bacterial growth inhibition zones were significantly elevated in garlic-fed fish (P < 0.05). In salinity stress experiment, no differences were observed for survival rate among the experimental diets. No mortality was recorded during the feeding trial. These results indicated that dietary garlic beneficially affects the skin mucus immune parameters and growth performance of the Caspian roach fry.

Keywords: Garlic; Growth; Immune response; Rutilus rutilus; Skin mucus.

MeSH terms

  • Animal Feed / analysis
  • Animals
  • Cyprinidae / growth & development
  • Cyprinidae / immunology
  • Cyprinidae / physiology*
  • Diet / veterinary*
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Enterococcus faecium / physiology
  • Epidermis / drug effects
  • Epidermis / immunology
  • Escherichia coli / physiology
  • Garlic* / chemistry
  • Immunity, Mucosal / immunology
  • Micrococcus luteus / physiology
  • Mucus / immunology*
  • Mucus / microbiology*
  • Salinity
  • Serratia marcescens / physiology
  • Stress, Physiological / drug effects