Background: The link among perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), abnormal glucose homeostasis and the risk of diabetes has been intensively debated with conflicting evidence.
Objectives: We evaluated the associations among PFASs, oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) curves and diabetes prevalence in 571 working-aged Taiwanese participants.
Methods: Exposure measures included serum perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA). Outcomes were OGTT curves and prevalent diabetes defined by fasting blood glucose (FBG) ≥126mg/dL, 2-h glucose ≥200mg/dL, or glycated hemoglobin ≥6.5%. Analyses were performed with multiple logistic regression and functional data analysis.
Results: A total of 39 participants (6.8%) had diabetes in this study. After full adjustment, the increase in the geometric means of FBG, 2-h glucose concentrations, and area under the OGTT curve (AUC120) with a doubling increase in PFOS was 3% (95% CI 1-4), 8% (5-12), and 6% (4-9), respectively. Compared to the lowest-quartile of PFOS concentrations (<2.4ng/ml), the OGTT trajectories were significantly steeper in participants of the highest-quartile PFOS exposure (>4.8ng/ml) and the vertical shifting of the mean curve for each PFOS quartile showed a dose-response pattern. The adjusted odds ratio for diabetes comparing the highest to lowest quartile was 3.37 (95% CI 1.18-9.65). For PFOA, PFNA, and PFUA, the opposite pattern of OGTT trajectory and the opposite risk profile for diabetes were observed.
Conclusions: Chronic PFOS exposure was associated with impaired glucose homeostasis and the increased prevalence of diabetes. However, PFOA, PFNA, and PFUA showed a potential protective effect against glucose intolerance and the risk of diabetes. Future research focusing on clarifying possible differential effects of different species of PFASs on glucose homeostasis and establishing the prospective associations between PFASs and diabetes is needed.
Keywords: Diabetes; Glucose homeostasis; Oral glucose tolerance testing; Perfluorinated chemicals.
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