Preparation, validation and user-testing of pictogram-based patient information leaflets for hemodialysis patients

Saudi Pharm J. 2015 Nov;23(6):621-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2015.01.022. Epub 2015 Feb 4.


Background: Patient information leaflets are universally-accepted resources to educate the patients/users about their medications, disease and lifestyle modification.

Objectives: The objective of the study was to prepare, validate and perform user-testing of pictogram-based patient information leaflets (P-PILs) among hemodialysis (HD) patients.

Methods: The P-PILs are prepared by referring to the primary, secondary and tertiary resources. The content and pictograms of the leaflet have been validated by an expert committee consisting of three nephrologists and two academic pharmacists. The Baker Able Leaflet Design has been applied to develop the layout and design of the P-PILs.

Results: Quasi-experimental pre- and post-test design without control group was conducted on 81 HD patients for user-testing of P-PILs. The mean Baker Able Leaflet Design assessment score for English version of the leaflet was 28, and 26 for Kannada version. The overall user-testing knowledge assessment mean scores were observed to have significantly improved from 44.25 to 69.62 with p value <0.001.

Conclusion: The overall user opinion of content and legibility of the leaflets was good. Pictogram-based patient information leaflets can be considered an effective educational tool for HD patients.

Keywords: Hemodialysis; Leaflets; Patient education; User testing.