Barriers for Compliance to Breast, Colorectal, and Cervical Screening Cancer Tests among Hispanic Patients

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015 Dec 22;13(1):ijerph13010021. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13010021.


Hispanics are less likely to undergo screening tests for colorectal cancer and cervical cancer than non-Hispanic whites. Compliance with mammography, fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), colonoscopy, and cervical smears (PAP) and barriers for compliance were studied. A descriptive study was performed with 194 ambulatory patients while they attended routine medical visits. Women are more likely than men to undergo a colonoscopy. Conversely, FOBT was most likely reported by men. Reasons for compliance with FOBT differed by gender. Men were most likely to avoid FOBT due to lack of knowledge whereas women reported that physicians do not recommend the procedure. Both men and women reported that lack of physician's recommendation was their primary reason for not undergoing a colonoscopy. Men tend to report lack of knowledge about colonoscopy procedure. A higher mammogram utilization rate was reported by women older than 40 years. PAP smears were reported by 74% of women older than 21 years. The major reasons for avoiding mammography and PAP tests were having a busy schedule, fear, and feeling uncomfortable during the procedure. In a multivariate regression analysis, occupational status was found to be a predictor for compliance with FOBT and colonoscopy.

Keywords: Hispanics; barriers; cancer screening; compliance.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Colonoscopy / psychology*
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Early Detection of Cancer / psychology*
  • Female
  • Hispanic or Latino / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mammography / psychology*
  • Mass Screening / psychology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Papanicolaou Test / psychology*
  • Patient Compliance / psychology*
  • Puerto Rico
  • Sex Factors
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • White People / psychology
  • Young Adult