The clinical profile of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) in the United Kingdom: A retrospective cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)

Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2016 Mar;20(2):296-308. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2015.11.011. Epub 2015 Dec 11.


Background: Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a multi-system genetic disorder characterised by the development of benign growths and diverse clinical manifestations, varying in severity, age at onset and with high clinical burden.

Aims: This longitudinal study aims to describe the broad spectrum of clinical manifestation profiles in a large, representative cohort of TSC patients in the UK in order to better understand disease complexity.

Methods: TSC patients in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and linked Hospital Episodes Statistics (CPRD-HES) were retrospectively identified between 1987 and 2013. Available history was extracted for each patient and clinical diagnosis, procedure and medication records reviewed. A random selection of patients from the CPRD-HES was used as a Comparator cohort.

Results: Three hundred and thirty-four TSC patients with a mean (SD) age of 30.3 (18.6) years were identified (53% female). TSC was diagnosed at mean age 3.2 (4.2) years. Epilepsy and psychiatric manifestations were reported frequently in paediatric (77% and 55%, respectively) and adult patients (66% and 68%, respectively). The prevalence of manifestations in the TSC cohort was markedly higher versus the Comparator cohort. The majority of paediatric (46%) and adult TSC patients (62%) developed clinical manifestations affecting at least three organ systems and forty-nine distinctive organ system manifestation profiles were identified.

Conclusions: TSC patients present with multiple and complex clinical manifestations and profiles that necessitate the co-ordinated action of a multidisciplinary team in order to improve the quality and efficiency of care.

Keywords: Angiomyolipoma; Epilepsy; Prevalence manifestations; Retrospective database; Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA); Tuberous sclerosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Databases, Factual
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tuberous Sclerosis / complications*
  • Tuberous Sclerosis / pathology*
  • United Kingdom