Mathematical Models of College Myopia

Optik (Stuttg). 2016 Jan;127(2):896-899. doi: 10.1016/j.ijleo.2015.10.190.


Experimental design phase of a pilot study at Annapolis is described, using reading glasses, +1.5 D. to +3.0 D. to alleviate college myopia. College students often become 1.0 to 2.0 diopters more myopic, so reading glasses were explored to partially cancel the effects of the study environment. N = 25 different sets of (+)Add lenses are evaluated, for required adjustment period and reading comfort. Three computer models are developed to predict refraction versus time. Basic control system equations predict exponential myopia shift of refractive state R(t) with time constant t0 = 100 days. Linear, exponential and Gompertz computer results are compared calculating refraction R(t) during the college years, showing correlation coefficients |r| = 0.96 to 0.97, accurate +/-0.31 D. over a 14 year interval. Typical college myopia rate is -0.3 to -0.4 D/yr. Reading glasses may be a simple, practical solution to stabilize college myopia.

Keywords: bifocals; emmetropia; feedback control theory; progressive add lenses (PALs); progressive myopia; reading glasses; refraction; time constants.