We are using a monoclonal antibody, QH-1, as a label for angioblasts in quail embryos to study vascular development. Our previous experiments showed that major embryonic blood vessels, such as the dorsal aortae and posterior cardinal veins, develop from angioblasts of mesodermal origin that appear in the body of the embryo proper (Coffin and Poole: Development, 102:735-748, '88). We theorized that there are two separate processes for blood vessel development that occur in quail embryos. One mechanism termed "vasculogenesis" forms blood vessels in place by the aggregation of angioblasts into a cord. The other mechanism, termed "angiogenesis," is the formation of new vessels by sprouting of capillaries from existing vessels. Here we report the results of microsurgical transplantation experiments designed to determine the extent of cell migration taking place during blood vessel formation. Comparison of the chimeras to normal embryos suggests that the vascular pattern develops, in part, from the normally restricted points of entry of angioblasts into the head from the ventral and dorsal aortae. Transplantations of quail mesoderm (1-15 somite stage) into the head of 5-15 somite chick hosts resulted in extensive sprouting and in migration of single and small groups of angioblasts away from the graft sites. Transplantations into the trunk resulted in incorporation of the graft into the normal vascular pattern of the host. Lateral plate mesoderm was incorporated into the dorsal aortae and individual sprouts grew between somites and along the neural tube to contribute to the intersomitic and vertebral arteries, respectively.