Tofogliflozin Improves Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle and Accelerates Lipolysis in Adipose Tissue in Male Mice

Endocrinology. 2016 Mar;157(3):1029-42. doi: 10.1210/en.2015-1588. Epub 2015 Dec 29.


Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors have attracted attention as they exert antidiabetic and antiobesity effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of tofogliflozin on glucose homeostasis and its metabolic consequences and clarified the underlying molecular mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were fed normal chow containing tofogliflozin (0.005%) for 20 weeks or a high-fat diet containing tofogliflozin (0.005%) for 8 weeks ad libitum. In addition, the animals were pair-fed in relation to controls to exclude the influence of increased food intake. Tofogliflozin reduced the body weight gain, mainly because of fat mass reduction associated with a diminished adipocyte size. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were ameliorated. The serum levels of nonesterified fatty acid and ketone bodies were increased and the respiratory quotient was decreased in the tofogliflozin-treated mice, suggesting the acceleration of lipolysis in the white adipose tissue and hepatic β-oxidation. In fact, the phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase and the adipose triglyceride lipase protein levels in the white adipose tissue as well as the gene expressions related to β-oxidation, such as Cpt1α in the liver, were significantly increased. The hepatic triglyceride contents and the expression levels of lipogenic genes were decreased. Pair-fed mice exhibited almost the same results as mice fed an high-fat diet ad libitum. Moreover, a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp revealed that tofogliflozin improved insulin resistance by increasing glucose uptake, especially in the skeletal muscle, in pair-fed mice. Taken together, these results suggest tofogliflozin ameliorates insulin resistance and obesity by increasing glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and lipolysis in adipose tissue.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue / drug effects
  • Adipose Tissue / metabolism
  • Adipose Tissue, White / drug effects*
  • Adipose Tissue, White / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Benzhydryl Compounds / pharmacology*
  • Diet, High-Fat
  • Fatty Acids, Nonesterified / blood
  • Gene Expression / drug effects
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Glucose Clamp Technique
  • Glucosides / pharmacology*
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Ketone Bodies / blood
  • Lipase / drug effects
  • Lipase / metabolism
  • Lipid Metabolism / drug effects
  • Lipogenesis / drug effects
  • Lipogenesis / genetics
  • Lipolysis / drug effects*
  • Liver / drug effects
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Muscle, Skeletal / drug effects*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors
  • Sterol Esterase / drug effects
  • Sterol Esterase / metabolism
  • Weight Gain / drug effects


  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Fatty Acids, Nonesterified
  • Glucosides
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Ketone Bodies
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors
  • Sterol Esterase
  • Lipase
  • PNPLA2 protein, mouse
  • Glucose
  • 6-((4-ethylphenyl)methyl)-3',4',5',6'-tetrahydro-6'-(hydroxymethyl)spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),2'-(2H)pyran)-3',4',5'-triol