Aim: Implant osseointegration is not always guaranteed and once fibrous encapsulation occurs clinicians have few options other than implant removal. Our goal was to test whether a WNT protein therapeutic could rescue such failed implants.
Material and methods: Titanium implants were placed in over-sized murine oral osteotomies. A lack of primary stability was verified by mechanical testing. Interfacial strains were estimated by finite element modelling and histology coupled with histomorphometry confirmed the lack of peri-implant bone. After fibrous encapsulation was established peri-implant injections of a liposomal formulation of WNT3A protein (L-WNT3A) or liposomal PBS (L-PBS) were then initiated. Quantitative assays were employed to analyse the effects of L-WNT3A treatment.
Results: Implants in gap-type interfaces exhibited high interfacial strains and no primary stability. After verification of implant failure, L-WNT3A or L-PBS injections were initiated. L-WNT3A induced a rapid, significant increase in Wnt responsiveness in the peri-implant environment, cell proliferation and osteogenic protein expression. The amount of peri-implant bone and bone in contact with the implant were significantly higher in L-WNT3A cases.
Conclusions: These data demonstrate L-WNT3A can induce peri-implant bone formation even in cases where fibrous encapsulation predominates.
Keywords: biomechanics; fibrosis; finite element analysis; osseointegration; osteogenesis.
© 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.