Aquaporin 11 variant associates with kidney disease in type 2 diabetic patients

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2016 Mar 1;310(5):F416-25. doi: 10.1152/ajprenal.00295.2015. Epub 2015 Dec 30.


Kidney disease, a common complication of diabetes, associates with poor prognosis. Our previous animal model studies linked aquaporin (AQP)11 to acute kidney injury, hyperglycemia-induced renal impairment, and kidney disease in diabetes. Here, we report the AQP11 rs2276415 variant as a genetic factor placing type 2 diabetic patients at greater risk for the development of kidney disease. We performed two independent retrospective case-control studies in 1,075 diabetic and 1,619 nondiabetic individuals who were identified in the Synthetic Derivative Database with DNA samples in the BioVU DNA repository at Vanderbilt University (Nashville, TN). A χ(2)-test and multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustments for age, sex, baseline serum creatinine, and underlying comorbid disease covariates showed a significant association between rs2276415 and the prevalence of any event of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in diabetic patients but not in patients without diabetes. This result was replicated in the second independent study. Diabetic CKD patients over 55 yrs old with the minor AQP11 allele had a significantly faster progression of estimated glomerular filtration rate decline than patients with the wild-type genotype. Three-dimensional structural analysis suggested a functional impairment of AQP11 with rs2276415, which could place diabetic patients at a higher risk for kidney disease. These studies identified rs2276415 as a candidate genetic factor predisposing patients with type 2 diabetes to CKD.

Keywords: acute kidney injury; chronic kidney injury; diabetes mellitus; proximal tubules.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / diagnosis
  • Acute Kidney Injury / epidemiology
  • Acute Kidney Injury / genetics*
  • Aged
  • Aquaporins / chemistry
  • Aquaporins / genetics*
  • Aquaporins / metabolism
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Databases, Genetic
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / genetics*
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / diagnosis
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / epidemiology
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / genetics*
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Molecular
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Phenotype
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide*
  • Prevalence
  • Protein Conformation
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / diagnosis
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / epidemiology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / genetics*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Structure-Activity Relationship


  • AQP11 protein, human
  • Aquaporins