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. 2016 Feb;86:54-61.
doi: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2015.11.015. Epub 2015 Nov 30.

Bringing Clinical Pharmacogenomics Information to Pharmacists: A Qualitative Study of Information Needs and Resource Requirements

Free PMC article

Bringing Clinical Pharmacogenomics Information to Pharmacists: A Qualitative Study of Information Needs and Resource Requirements

Katrina M Romagnoli et al. Int J Med Inform. .
Free PMC article


Introduction: As key experts in supporting medication-decision making, pharmacists are well-positioned to support the incorporation of pharmacogenomics into clinical care. However, there has been little study to date of pharmacists' information needs regarding pharmacogenomics. Understanding those needs is critical to design information resources that help pharmacists effectively apply pharmacogenomics information.

Objectives: We sought to understand the pharmacogenomics information needs and resource requirements of pharmacists.

Methods: We conducted qualitative inquiries with 14 pharmacists representing 6 clinical environments, and used the results of those inquiries to develop a model of pharmacists' pharmacogenomics information needs and resource requirements.

Results: The inquiries identified 36 pharmacogenomics-specific and pharmacogenomics-related information needs that fit into four information needs themes: background information, patient information, medication information, and guidance information. The results of the inquiries informed a model of pharmacists' pharmacogenomics resource requirements, with 3 themes: structure of the resource, perceptions of the resource, and perceptions of the information.

Conclusion: Responses suggest that pharmacists anticipate an imminently growing role for pharmacogenomics in their practice. Participants value information from trust-worthy resources like FDA product labels, but struggle to find relevant information quickly in labels. Specific information needs include clinically relevant guidance about genotypes, phenotypes, and how to care for their patients with known genotypes. Information resources supporting the goal of incorporating complicated genetic information into medication decision-making goals should be well-designed and trustworthy.

Keywords: Genomics; Information needs; Needs assessment; Pharmacists; Pharmacogenomics; Qualitative inquiry.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of Interest Declaration

We wish to confirm that there are no known conflicts of interest associated with this publication and there has been no significant financial support for this work that could have influenced its outcome.

We confirm that the manuscript has been read and approved by all named authors and that there are no other persons who satisfied the criteria for authorship but are not listed. We further confirm that the order of authors listed in the manuscript has been approved by all of us.

We confirm that we have given due consideration to the protection of intellectual property associated with this work and that there are no impediments to publication, including the timing of publication, with respect to intellectual property. In so doing we confirm that we have followed the regulations of our institutions concerning intellectual property.

We further confirm that any aspect of the work covered in this manuscript that has involved human subjects has been conducted with the ethical approval of all relevant bodies and that such approvals are acknowledged within the manuscript.

We understand that the Corresponding Author is the sole contact for the Editorial process (including Editorial Manager and direct communications with the office). She is responsible for communicating with the other authors about progress, submissions of revisions and final approval of proofs. We confirm that we have provided a current, correct email address which is accessible by the Corresponding Author.

Signed by all authors as follows:

Katrina M. Romagnoli

Richard Boyce

Harry Hochheiser

Philip Empey

Solomon Adams


Figure 1
Figure 1
Project Workflow

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