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. 2015 Dec;23(12):2491-8.
doi: 10.1002/oby.21247. Epub 2015 Nov 2.

Relationship Between Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index Depends on Age

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Free PMC article

Relationship Between Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index Depends on Age

Michael A Grandner et al. Obesity (Silver Spring). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Objective: Sleep duration is associated with obesity and cardiometabolic disease. It is unclear, though, how these relationship differs across age groups.

Methods: Data from 2007 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used, including respondents aged 16+ with complete data (N = 5,607). Sleep duration and age were evaluated by self-report, and body mass index (BMI) was assessed objectively. Sleep duration was evaluated continuously and categorically [very short (≤4 h), short (5-6 h), and long (≥9 h) versus average (7-8 h)]. Age was also evaluated continuously and categorically [adolescent (16-17 years), young adult (18-29 years), early middle age (30-49 years), late middle age (50-64 years), and older adult (≥65 years)].

Results: There was a significant interaction with age for both continuous (Pinteraction = 0.014) and categorical (Pinteraction = 0.035) sleep duration. A pseudo-linear relationship was seen among the youngest respondents, with the highest BMI associated with the shortest sleepers and the lowest BMI associated with the longest sleepers. This relationship became U-shaped in middle-age, and less of a relationship was seen among the oldest respondents.

Conclusions: These findings may provide insights for clinical recommendations and could help to guide mechanistic research regarding the sleep-obesity relationship.

Conflict of interest statement

DISCLOSURE STATEMENT

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
A. Sleep duration assessed as a continuous variable across age groups. B. Proportion of the sample in each sleep duration category in each age group. A. Habitual sleep duration by age group. B. Distribution of sleep duration categories by age group.
Figure 1
Figure 1
A. Sleep duration assessed as a continuous variable across age groups. B. Proportion of the sample in each sleep duration category in each age group. A. Habitual sleep duration by age group. B. Distribution of sleep duration categories by age group.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Graphical depiction of regression results showing the relationship between continuous body mass index per hour of sleep, stratified by age group. Difference in BMI per hour of sleep for each age group, predicted using regression. Filled symbols represent statistically significant findings.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Three-dimensional plot of the relationship of sleep duration (continuous) and body mass index (continuous), as it depends on age (continuous). Three-dimensional plot of regression results for the relationship between sleep duration and BMI, and how this varies by age, with all factors expressed as continuous variables.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Graphical representation of the relationship between categorical sleep duration and body mass index as it relates to age. Age is on the X axis and body mass index is on the Y axis, with separate lines for different sleep duration categories. Plot of relationships between continuous age and continuous BMI stratified by sleep duration category.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Separate plots of the relationship between sleep duration category (relative to 7-8 hour sleepers) and body mass index, across age groups, with 95% confidence intervals for each age. This shows how there are significant relationships, but only in certain age ranges. Regression results and 95% Confidence intervals of relationships between age and BMI for each sleep duration category, relative to 7–8 hours.

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