We performed a multicentered, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study comparing the efficacy of 0.5% and 1.0% apraclonidine hydrochloride in 15 normal volunteers and 17 subjects with increased intraocular pressure. Apraclonidine 1% produced a maximum 30.4% +/- 14.0% (4.7 +/- 2.4 mm Hg) decrease in mean intraocular pressure in normal eyes and a 31.3% +/- 16.5% (7.6 +/- 4.2 mm Hg) decrease in eyes with increased pressure. Apraclonidine 0.5% produced a maximum 25.8% +/- 9.7% (4.0 +/- 1.7 mm Hg) decrease in mean intraocular pressure in normal eyes and a 27.4% +/- 16.0% (6.8 +/- 4.5 mm Hg) decrease in eyes with increased pressure. There was no statistically significant difference in mean percent intraocular pressure lowering effect between the 0.5% and 1.0% apraclonidine concentrations. Most subjects treated with apraclonidine had a greater than or equal to 20% reduction in intraocular pressure from baseline. Twelve hours after instillation of apraclonidine, nine of the normal volunteers had an intraocular pressure of 10 mm Hg or less. Apraclonidine produced the same percent intraocular pressure decrease regardless of the initial level of intraocular pressure.