This present review focuses on spontaneous neoplasms occurring in transgenic mice carrying and expressing activated cellular oncogenes. The historical development of transgenic mice as in vivo disease models is briefly traced, followed by a brief description of the actual technology in such systems. Additional emphasis is placed on the concept of targeting activated cellular oncogenes to specific tissues in transgenic mice. Cumulative experience with activated (Vmyc, ras, and neu (erb-B2] oncogenes in transgenic mice is considered in detail, with particular attention paid to the observed pathology, as well as to the kinetics of disease occurrence. It is concluded that transgenic mice offer the interested investigator(s) an excellent prospective, in vivo model of oncogenesis.