Protective Effects of Triphala on Dermal Fibroblasts and Human Keratinocytes

PLoS One. 2016 Jan 5;11(1):e0145921. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145921. eCollection 2016.

Abstract

Human skin is body's vital organ constantly exposed to abiotic oxidative stress. This can have deleterious effects on skin such as darkening, skin damage, and aging. Plant-derived products having skin-protective effects are well-known traditionally. Triphala, a formulation of three fruit products, is one of the most important rasayana drugs used in Ayurveda. Several skin care products based on Triphala are available that claim its protective effects on facial skin. However, the skin protective effects of Triphala extract (TE) and its mechanistic action on skin cells have not been elucidated in vitro. Gallic acid, ellagic acid, and chebulinic acid were deduced by LC-MS as the major constituents of TE. The identified key compounds were docked with skin-related proteins to predict their binding affinity. The IC50 values for TE on human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were 204.90 ± 7.6 and 239.13 ± 4.3 μg/mL respectively. The antioxidant capacity of TE was 481.33 ± 1.5 mM Trolox equivalents in HaCaT cells. Triphala extract inhibited hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced RBC haemolysis (IC50 64.95 μg/mL), nitric oxide production by 48.62 ± 2.2%, and showed high reducing power activity. TE also rescued HDF from H2O2-induced damage; inhibited H2O2 induced cellular senescence and protected HDF from DNA damage. TE increased collagen-I, involucrin and filaggrin synthesis by 70.72 ± 2.3%, 67.61 ± 2.1% and 51.91 ± 3.5% in HDF or HaCaT cells respectively. TE also exhibited anti-tyrosinase and melanin inhibition properties in a dose-dependent manner. TE increased the mRNA expression of collagen-I, elastin, superoxide dismutase (SOD-2), aquaporin-3 (AQP-3), filaggrin, involucrin, transglutaminase in HDF or HaCaT cells, and decreased the mRNA levels of tyrosinase in B16F10 cells. Thus, Triphala exhibits protective benefits on skin cells in vitro and can be used as a potential ingredient in skin care formulations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / chemistry
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Cell Line
  • Cellular Senescence / drug effects
  • DNA Damage / drug effects
  • Fibroblasts / drug effects*
  • Fibroblasts / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / metabolism
  • Keratinocytes / drug effects*
  • Keratinocytes / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Protective Agents / chemistry
  • Protective Agents / pharmacology*

Substances

  • Antioxidants
  • Plant Extracts
  • Protective Agents
  • triphala
  • Hydrogen Peroxide

Grant support

The funding for this project was done by The Himalaya Drug Company, India. All the authors of this study are regular employees of the Himalaya Drug Company. The study was conducted as part of the project work funded by the Himalaya drug Company, India. The company provided all the support to the study which include author salaries, study design, data collection, decision to publish, and preparation of the manuscript.