A panel of sera from 892 autoimmune patients was screened by indirect immunofluorescence on mammalian cells. Seventy-three sera were identified that recognize the nucleolus. Three of these sera appear to stain the nucleolus in yeast, suggesting that they recognize highly conserved antigens. These three sera also immunoprecipitate mammalian U3 snRNA-containing particles, which reside in the nucleolus and have been implicated in rRNA processing. Double immunofluorescence experiments with anti-nucleolus and anti-tubulin antibodies revealed a novel form of non-random nuclear organization in yeast. The spindle pole body and the nucleolus-both of which are associated with the nuclear envelope-preferentially localize at opposite ends of the nucleus. Organization of these and other components into specific regions of the nucleus may be important for optimizing their proper function.