A Comprehensive Lifestyle Intervention to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases: the German CHIP Trial

Prev Sci. 2016 Apr;17(3):386-97. doi: 10.1007/s11121-015-0623-2.


The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is continuously increasing. This chronic metabolic disorder is difficult to treat and imposes a considerable economic burden on the healthcare system. In view of the fact that type 2 diabetes is primarily caused by behavioral factors, effective preventive strategies are urgently needed. We examined the effects of a holistic lifestyle intervention on clinical and laboratory parameters as well as on the long-term diabetes risk in patients at risk to develop diabetes. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in a primary care setting in Hannover, Germany, with 83 patients diagnosed as (pre)diabetic or at risk for diabetes. CHIP Germany is a 40-hour coaching lifestyle intervention program for the primary and secondary prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The intervention included a comprehensive nutrition and health educational program based on the American CHIP approach. The primary outcome parameter was the body mass index (BMI). Secondary outcome parameters included body weight, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbA1c, blood lipids, and the FINDRISK score, which assesses long-term diabetes risk. At the final measurement after 12 months, in the intervention group the BMI was reduced by 1.4 versus 0.2 kg/m(2) in controls (p = .119). The mean sustained weight loss after 12 months was -4.1 kg in the intervention group versus -0.8 kg in controls. Furthermore, we found a trend toward a stronger reduction in blood pressure, fasting glucose, and HbA1c as well as an improved FINDRISK score in the intervention group, compared to controls. Although failing to reach statistical significance at the final assessment, this comprehensive lifestyle intervention showed a noticeable reduction in several cardiometabolic risk factors which may facilitate the prevention of diabetes.

Keywords: Cardiovascular risk; Empowerment; Health behavior; Lifestyle coaching; Type 2 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / prevention & control*
  • Exercise
  • Female
  • Germany / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Life Style*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors