Introduction of Bovine-Based Nutrient Fortifier and Gastrointestinal Inflammation in Very Low Birth Weight Infants as Measured by Fecal Calprotectin

Breastfeed Med. 2016 Jan-Feb;11(1):2-5. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2015.0125. Epub 2016 Jan 7.


Background: Fecal calprotectin (fCP) is a biomarker of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) inflammation that is currently being used investigationally among very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.

Materials and methods: Stool was collected weekly from 20 breastmilk-fed VLBW infants for up to 8 weeks after birth during the establishment and fortification of feeds, and fCP concentrations were measured.

Results: Mean fCP levels increased significantly in stools collected immediately following bovine-based nutrient fortification of feeds (p = 0.005).

Conclusions: Addition of bovine fortifier to breastmilk feeds appeared to be associated with an acute increase in GIT inflammation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Breast Feeding*
  • Cattle
  • Feces / chemistry*
  • Food, Fortified*
  • Gastroenteritis / diagnosis*
  • Gastroenteritis / microbiology
  • Humans
  • Infant Formula
  • Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Very Low Birth Weight
  • Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex / metabolism*
  • Prospective Studies


  • Biomarkers
  • Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex