Vitamin D Status Is Associated With Metabolic Syndrome in a Clinic-Based Sample of Hispanic Adults

Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2016 Jun;14(5):259-64. doi: 10.1089/met.2015.0117. Epub 2016 Jan 7.


Background: Vitamin D status has been associated with metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and its components in different populations, but few studies have assessed this among Hispanics. The objective of this analysis was to assess such association in a clinic-based sample of Hispanic adults.

Methods: Medical records were reviewed retrospectively for the years 2005-2013. MetSyn was assessed using the revised NCEP-ATP III criteria. Vitamin D status was evaluated from reported serum 25(OH)D levels. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess the association between MetSyn risk and vitamin D status, controlling for important confounders.

Results: From 1379 medical records evaluated, 712 met the inclusion criteria. Most were females (62.6%), with a mean age of 53.8 ± 14.1 years, mean body mass index (BMI) of 30.1 ± 6.4 kg/m(2), and mean serum 25(OH)D levels of 24.4 ± 8.3 ng/mL. MetSyn was identified in 40.5% of the participants. Serum 25(OH)D levels in those with MetSyn (22.7 ± 8.0 ng/mL) were significantly lower compared to those without MetSyn (25.5 ± 8.4 ng/mL; P < 0.001). Serum 25(OH)D levels were inversely correlated to triglycerides, waist circumference, and fasting blood glucose (P < 0.05). In the multivariable logistic regression model, decreased serum 25(OH)D levels were associated with higher odds of MetSyn, even after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, and seasonality.

Conclusion: In this clinic-based sample, the odds of MetSyn increased as serum 25(OH)D levels decreased. These results have important public health implications for developing recommendations directed to increase vitamin D status in this sample.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Body Mass Index
  • Female
  • Hispanic Americans
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / blood*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / ethnology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Odds Ratio
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sunlight
  • Triglycerides / blood
  • United States
  • Vitamin D / blood*
  • Waist Circumference


  • Blood Glucose
  • Triglycerides
  • Vitamin D