The effect of 2% chlorhexidine digluconate irrigation on clinical parameters and the level of Bacteroides gingivalis in periodontal pockets

J Periodontol. 1989 Jun;60(6):302-9. doi: 10.1902/jop.1989.60.6.302.


Eight patients with moderate periodontitis volunteered to participate in a study to assess the effect of subgingival 2% chlorhexidine irrigation, with and without scaling and root planing, on clinical parameters and the level of Bacteroides gingivalis in periodontal pockets. Each quadrant was required to have at least one site with a probing depth of 6 mm or greater and bleeding on probing. The patients were treated following a randomized four quadrant design: one quadrant received no treatment; a second quadrant received scaling and root planing only; a third quadrant received chlorhexidine irrigation only; the fourth quadrant received scaling and root planing, plus chlorhexidine irrigation. Sites to receive chlorhexidine were irrigated at 0, 1, 2, and 3 weeks. Clinical and microbiological indices were measured and recorded at 0, 5, 7, 11, and 15 weeks. The clinical parameters measured included; Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), probing depth (PD), Bleeding Tendency (BT), and attachment level (AL). The attachment level was measured using an occlusal stint as a fixed reference point. The level of Bacteroides gingivalis was measured by labeling the plaque sample with a polyclonal fluorescent antibody. The plaque smear was then read using a fluorescent microscope at 1000 magnification. The Spearman Rank-Order Correlation was used to determine the relationship between parameters at baseline. The effects of the treatment groups were compared using the Neuman-Keuls Multiple Comparison Technique. The results showed that a positive correlation existed between B. gingivalis (rs = 0.68) and Bleeding Tendency and between P1I (rs = 0.77) and GI.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Bacteroides / isolation & purification*
  • Chlorhexidine / administration & dosage
  • Chlorhexidine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Chlorhexidine / therapeutic use
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Dental Plaque / microbiology
  • Dental Scaling
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Periodontal Pocket / microbiology*
  • Periodontitis / drug therapy
  • Periodontitis / microbiology*
  • Periodontitis / therapy*
  • Therapeutic Irrigation
  • Tooth Root / surgery


  • chlorhexidine gluconate
  • Chlorhexidine