Background & aims: Although bariatric surgery is the most effective therapy for obesity, only a small proportion of candidates undergo this surgery. Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG) is a minimally invasive procedure that reduces the size of the gastric reservoir. We investigated its durability and effects on body weight and gastrointestinal function in a prospective study of obese individuals.
Methods: Twenty-five obese individuals (21 female; mean body mass index, 35.5 ± 2.6 kg/m2; mean age, 47.6 ± 10 years) underwent ESG with endoluminal creation of a sleeve along the gastric lesser curve from September 2012 through March 2015 at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. Subjects were followed for a median period of 9 months. We measured changes in body weight and recorded adverse events; patients were assessed by endoscopy after 3 months. Four participants underwent pre-ESG and post-ESG analyses to measure solid and liquid gastric emptying, satiation (meal tolerance), and fasting and postprandial levels of insulin, glucose, and gut hormones.
Results: Subjects had lost 53% ± 17%, 56% ± 23%, 54% ± 40%, and 45% ± 41% of excess body weight at 6, 9, 12, and 20 months, respectively, after the procedure (P < .01). Endoscopy at 3 months showed intact gastroplasty in all subjects. After ESG, physiological analyses of 4 participants showed a decrease by 59% in caloric consumption to reach maximum fullness (P = .003), slowing of gastric emptying of solids (P = .03), and a trend toward increased insulin sensitivity (P = .06). Three patients had serious adverse events (a perigastric inflammatory collection, a pulmonary embolism, and a small pneumothorax) but made full recoveries with no need for surgical interventions. No further serious adverse events occurred after the technique was adjusted.
Conclusions: ESG delays gastric emptying, induces early satiation, and significantly reduces body weight. ESG could be an alternative to bariatric surgery for selected patients with obesity. ClincialTrials.gov number: NCT 01682733.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01682733.
Keywords: BMI; Gastric Restriction; Stomach; Weight Loss Procedure.
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