Identification, Validation, and Application of Molecular Diagnostics for Insecticide Resistance in Malaria Vectors

Trends Parasitol. 2016 Mar;32(3):197-206. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2015 Dec 29.


Insecticide resistance is a major obstacle to control of Anopheles malaria mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa and requires an improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Efforts to discover resistance genes and DNA markers have been dominated by candidate gene and quantitative trait locus studies of laboratory strains, but with greater availability of genome sequences a shift toward field-based agnostic discovery is anticipated. Mechanisms evolve continually to produce elevated resistance yielding multiplicative diagnostic markers, co-screening of which can give high predictive value. With a shift toward prospective analyses, identification and screening of resistance marker panels will boost monitoring and programmatic decision making.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anopheles / genetics*
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / genetics
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism
  • Genetic Markers / genetics
  • Genome, Insect / genetics
  • Genomics
  • Insect Vectors / genetics
  • Insecticide Resistance / genetics*
  • Molecular Diagnostic Techniques / trends*
  • Parasitology / standards
  • Parasitology / trends*


  • Genetic Markers
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System