Importance: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most commonly used drugs worldwide and have been linked to acute interstitial nephritis. Less is known about the association between PPI use and chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Objective: To quantify the association between PPI use and incident CKD in a population-based cohort.
Design, setting, and participants: In total, 10,482 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of at least 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were followed from a baseline visit between February 1, 1996, and January 30, 1999, to December 31, 2011. The data was analyzed from May 2015 to October 2015. The findings were replicated in an administrative cohort of 248,751 patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of at least 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) from the Geisinger Health System.
Exposures: Self-reported PPI use in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study or an outpatient PPI prescription in the Geisinger Health System replication cohort. Histamine2 (H2) receptor antagonist use was considered a negative control and active comparator.
Main outcomes and measures: Incident CKD was defined using diagnostic codes at hospital discharge or death in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, and by a sustained outpatient estimated glomerular filtration rate of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in the Geisinger Health System replication cohort.
Results: Among 10,482 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, the mean (SD) age was 63.0 (5.6) years, and 43.9% were male. Compared with nonusers, PPI users were more often of white race, obese, and taking antihypertensive medication. Proton pump inhibitor use was associated with incident CKD in unadjusted analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.45; 95% CI, 1.11-1.90); in analysis adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical variables (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.14-1.96); and in analysis with PPI ever use modeled as a time-varying variable (adjusted HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.17-1.55). The association persisted when baseline PPI users were compared directly with H2 receptor antagonist users (adjusted HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.01-1.91) and with propensity score-matched nonusers (HR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.13-2.74). In the Geisinger Health System replication cohort, PPI use was associated with CKD in all analyses, including a time-varying new-user design (adjusted HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.20-1.28). Twice-daily PPI dosing (adjusted HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.28-1.67) was associated with a higher risk than once-daily dosing (adjusted HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.09-1.21).
Conclusions and relevance: Proton pump inhibitor use is associated with a higher risk of incident CKD. Future research should evaluate whether limiting PPI use reduces the incidence of CKD.