Minor Contribution of Endogenous GLP-1 and GLP-2 to Postprandial Lipemia in Obese Men

PLoS One. 2016 Jan 11;11(1):e0145890. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145890. eCollection 2016.


Context: Glucose and lipids stimulate the gut-hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) but the effect of these on human postprandial lipid metabolism is not fully clarified.

Objective: To explore the responses of GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP after a fat-rich meal compared to the same responses after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to investigate possible relationships between incretin response and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) response to a fat-rich meal.

Design: Glucose, insulin, GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP were measured after an OGTT and after a fat-rich meal in 65 healthy obese (BMI 26.5-40.2 kg/m(2)) male subjects. Triglycerides (TG), apoB48 and apoB100 in TG-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL1 and VLDL2) were measured after the fat-rich meal.

Main outcome measures: Postprandial responses (area under the curve, AUC) for glucose, insulin, GLP-1, GLP-2, GIP in plasma, and TG, apoB48 and apoB100 in plasma and TG-rich lipoproteins.

Results: The GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP responses after the fat-rich meal and after the OGTT correlated strongly (r = 0.73, p<0.0001; r = 0.46, p<0.001 and r = 0.69, p<0.001, respectively). Glucose and insulin AUCs were lower, but the AUCs for GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP were significantly higher after the fat-rich meal than after the OGTT. The peak value for all hormones appeared at 120 minutes after the fat-rich meal, compared to 30 minutes after the OGTT. After the fat-rich meal, the AUCs for GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP correlated significantly with plasma TG- and apoB48 AUCs but the contribution was very modest.

Conclusions: In obese males, GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP responses to a fat-rich meal are greater than following an OGTT. However, the most important explanatory variable for postprandial TG excursion was fasting triglycerides. The contribution of endogenous GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP to explaining the variance in postprandial TG excursion was minor.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Apolipoprotein B-100 / blood
  • Apolipoprotein B-48 / blood
  • Area Under Curve
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Chylomicrons / blood
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Fats / metabolism
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide / blood
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / blood*
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 2 / blood*
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Humans
  • Hyperlipidemias / blood*
  • Hyperlipidemias / pathology
  • Incretins / blood
  • Lipid Metabolism
  • Male
  • Meals
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / blood*
  • Obesity / pathology
  • Postprandial Period
  • Triglycerides / blood


  • Apolipoprotein B-100
  • Apolipoprotein B-48
  • Blood Glucose
  • Chylomicrons
  • Dietary Fats
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 2
  • Incretins
  • Triglycerides
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1

Grant support

This paper was supported by grants from Helsinki University Central Hospital EVO‐funds, Finnish Diabetes Research Foundation, Academy of Finland (grants 266286 and 272376), European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes, Sigrid Juselius Foundation, Foundation Leducq France, Swedish Research Council, Swedish Heart Lung Foundation, Diabetes Research Wellness Foundation, Sahlgrenska University Hospital ALF grant, Swedish Diabetes Foundation, the NovoNordisk Foundation and the EU project RESOLVE.