Lower urinary tract symptoms, benign prostatic hyperplasia and metabolic syndrome

Nat Rev Urol. 2016 Feb;13(2):108-19. doi: 10.1038/nrurol.2015.301. Epub 2016 Jan 12.


Epidemiological studies have shown that age is the principal unmodifiable risk factor of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Until the past decade, the process of lower urinary tract ageing was, therefore, considered unmodifiable - as ageing per se. However, the traditional dogma that BPH-related LUTS (BPH-LUTS) is an immutable consequence of old age is no longer acceptable. Results from multiple preclinical and clinical studies indicate that several modifiable, age-related metabolic aberrations (metabolic syndrome, obesity, dyslipidaemia, diabetes) are important determinants in both the development and the progression of BPH-LUTS. Metabolic syndrome and its related comorbidities, such as sex steroid alterations and low-grade inflammation, have been related to BPH-LUTS development and progression. With the correct treatment and recommended lifestyle changes, many individuals with metabolic syndrome might be able to prevent or delay the onset of metabolic-syndrome-related complications; however, whether promoting healthier lifestyles can really alter a man's propensity to develop BPH-LUTS remains to be clarified.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms / complications*
  • Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms / therapy
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / complications*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / therapy
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / complications*
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / therapy
  • Risk Factors