Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 6, 19157

Dissecting the Influence of Neolithic Demic Diffusion on Indian Y-chromosome Pool Through J2-M172 Haplogroup

Affiliations

Dissecting the Influence of Neolithic Demic Diffusion on Indian Y-chromosome Pool Through J2-M172 Haplogroup

Sakshi Singh et al. Sci Rep.

Abstract

The global distribution of J2-M172 sub-haplogroups has been associated with Neolithic demic diffusion. Two branches of J2-M172, J2a-M410 and J2b-M102 make a considerable part of Y chromosome gene pool of the Indian subcontinent. We investigated the Neolithic contribution of demic dispersal from West to Indian paternal lineages, which majorly consists of haplogroups of Late Pleistocene ancestry. To accomplish this, we have analysed 3023 Y-chromosomes from different ethnic populations, of which 355 belonged to J2-M172. Comparison of our data with worldwide data, including Y-STRs of 1157 individuals and haplogroup frequencies of 6966 individuals, suggested a complex scenario that cannot be explained by a single wave of agricultural expansion from Near East to South Asia. Contrary to the widely accepted elite dominance model, we found a substantial presence of J2a-M410 and J2b-M102 haplogroups in both caste and tribal populations of India. Unlike demic spread in Eurasia, our results advocate a unique, complex and ancient arrival of J2a-M410 and J2b-M102 haplogroups into Indian subcontinent.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1. Contour maps showing worldwide geographical frequency distribution of haplogroups.
(a) J2a-M410 and (b) J2b-M102. The maps were generated using Surfer8 of Golden Software (Golden Software Inc.), following the Kriging procedure. Black dots indicate sampling locations.
Figure 2
Figure 2. Contour maps showing worldwide geographical frequency distribution of haplogroups.
(a) J1-M267, (b) J2b1-M205 and (c) J2b2-M241. The maps were generated using Surfer8 of Golden Software (Golden Software Inc.), following the Kriging procedure. Black dots indicate sampling locations.
Figure 3
Figure 3. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) plot based on Rst values of Y-STRs for haplogroups.
(a) J2a-M410 and (b) J2b-M102. Dots represent different populations worldwide. CC = Caucasian, IN = Indian, AF = Afghanistani, ABZ = Abkhaz, BDG = Baduga, BNJ = Banjara, BHL = Bahelia, CHN = Chechen (Chechnya), DG = Chechen (Dagestan), INT = Chechen Ingushetia, CHN = Chenchu, CRC = Circassians, HVK = Havik, HZR = Hazara, ING = Ingush, KBJ = Kamboj, KOT = Kota, LHN = Lohana, MK = Mahadev Koli, MONT = Montenegrin, OSD = Ossets (Digor), OSI = Ossets (Iron), NOM = Indian Nomads (Pichakuntla & Mondi), SERB = Serbian, TJK = Tajik, THK = Thakar, THP = Thapa, TOD = Toda, VNY = Vanniyar, YAD = Yadav, IRAN = Iranian, LEBN = Lebanese, MONT = Montenegrin, SERB = Serbian, SYRIA = Syrian, WRUS = WesternRussia, CCSS = Caucasus, ASR = Asur, BHL = Bahelia, BUX = Buxas, CND = CapeNadar, CHN = Chenchu, EZH = Ezhava, KOR = Korku, MVR = Maravar, MNA = Meena, NKR = Narikuravar, PLY = Paliyan, PRV = Paravar, PRY = Parayar, NOM = Indian Nomads (Pichakuntla & Mondi), SHK = Shikari, TDV = Tadvi, TJN = Tamil Jains, THP = Thapa, VNY = Vanniyar, VAD = Yadhava, ASKNZ = Ashkenazi.
Figure 4
Figure 4. Network connecting Y-STR haplotypes within J2-M172.
The network was constructed using a median joining with maximum parsimony (MP) algorithm as implemented in the Network 4.612 program. The size of the circle is proportional to the numbers of the samples.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 7 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

References

    1. Thangaraj K. et al. In situ origin of deep rooting lineages of mitochondrial Macrohaplogroup ‘M’ in India. BMC Genomics 7, 151 (2006). - PMC - PubMed
    1. Reich D., Thangaraj K., Patterson N., Price A. L. & Singh L. Reconstructing Indian population history. Nature 461, 489–94 (2009). - PMC - PubMed
    1. Mellars P., Gori K. C., Carr M., Soares P. A. & Richards M. B. Genetic and archaeological perspectives on the initial modern human colonization of southern Asia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 110, 10699–10704 (2013). - PMC - PubMed
    1. Misra V. N. Prehistoric human colonisation of India. J. Biosci. 26, 491–531 (2001). - PubMed
    1. Kivisild T. et al. In Genomic Diversity: Applications in Human Population Genetics (eds Papiha S. S., Deka R. & Chakraborty R.) Ch. 11, 135–152 (Kluwer, New York, 1999).

Publication types

Feedback