Purpose: CALGB 49907 showed the superiority of standard therapy, which included either cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin (AC) or cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/fluorouracil over single-agent capecitabine in the treatment of patients age ≥ 65 with early-stage breast cancer. The treatment allowed dosing adjustments of methotrexate and capecitabine for pretreatment renal function. The purpose of the current analysis was to assess the relationship between pretreatment renal function and five end points: toxicity, dose modification, therapy completion, relapse-free survival, and overall survival.
Methods: Pretreatment renal function was defined as creatinine clearance (CrCl) using the Cockcroft-Gault equation. Multivariable logistic and proportional hazards regression were used to model separately for each regimen the relationship between CrCl and the first three binary end points and the last two time-to-event end points, respectively, after adjusting for variables of prognostic importance.
Results: Six hundred nineteen assessable patients were analyzed. The incidence of stage III (moderate) or stage IV (severe) renal dysfunction was 72%, 64%, and 75% for treatment with cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/fluorouracil, AC, and capecitabine, respectively. There was no relationship for any regimen between pretreatment renal function and the five end points. For AC, as CrCl increased, the odds of nonhematologic toxicity decreased (P = .008), whereas for capecitabine, as CrCl increased, the odds of experiencing toxicity of any type also increased (P = .035). Patients with renal insufficiency who received dose modifications were not at increased risk for complications compared with those who did not have renal insufficiency and received a full dose.
Conclusion: Excluding from clinical trials patients with renal insufficiency but good performance status on the basis of concern of excessive hematologic toxicity or poor outcomes may not be justified with appropriate dosing modifications. Results should be considered in the design of clinical trials for older patients.
© 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.