Association between type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and compositional changes in the gut micro biota is established, however little is known about the dysbiosis in early stages of Prediabetes (preDM). The purpose of this investigation is to elucidate the characteristics of the gut micro biome in preDM and T2DM, compared to Non-Diabetic (nonDM) subjects. Forty nine subjects were recruited for this study, 15 nonDM, 20 preDM and 14 T2DM. Bacterial community composition and diversity were investigated in fecal DNA samples using Illumina sequencing of the V4 region within the 16S rRNA gene. The five most abundant phyla identified were: Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Actinobacteria. Class Chloracido bacteria was increased in preDM compared to T2DM (p = 0.04). An unknown genus from family Pseudonocardiaceae was significantly present in preDM group compared to the others (p = 0.04). Genus Collinsella, and an unknown genus belonging to family Enterobacteriaceae were both found to be significantly increased in T2DM compared to the other groups (Collinsella, and p = 0.03, Enterobacteriaceae genus p = 0.02). PERMANOVA and Mantel tests performed did not reveal a relationship between overall composition and diagnosis group or HbA1C level. This study identified dysbiosis associated with both preDM and T2DM, specifically at the class and genus levels suggesting that earlier treatment in preDM could possibly have an impact on the intestinal micro flora transitioning to T2DM.
Keywords: Bacterial diversity; Diabetes; Gut microbiome; Prediabetes.