Periostin is a matricellular protein that has been implicated in many disease states. It interacts with multiple signaling cascades to modulate the expression of downstream genes that regulate cellular interactions within the extracellular matrix. This review focuses on the role of periostin in respiratory diseases, including asthma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and its potential to help guide treatment or assess prognosis. Epithelial injury is a common feature of many respiratory diseases, resulting in the secretion, among others, of periostin, which is subsequently involved in airway remodeling and other aspects of pulmonary pathophysiology. In asthma, periostin is recognized as a biomarker of type 2 inflammation; POSTN gene expression is up-regulated in bronchial epithelial cells by IL-13 and IL-4. Serum periostin has been evaluated for the identification of patients with increased clinical benefit from treatment with anti-IL-13 (lebrikizumab, tralokinumab) and anti-IgE (omalizumab) therapy and may be prognostic for increased risk of asthma exacerbations and progressive lung function decline. Furthermore, in asthma, periostin may regulate subepithelial fibrosis and mucus production and may serve as a systemic biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation. Periostin is also highly expressed in the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and its serum levels may predict clinical progression. Overall, periostin contributes to multiple pathogenic processes across respiratory diseases, and peripheral blood levels of periostin may have utility as a biomarker of treatment response and disease progression.
Keywords: airway remodeling; asthma; biomarker; idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; periostin.