Polymicrobial Biofilm Inhibition Effects of Acetate-Buffered Chitosan Sponge Delivery Device

Macromol Biosci. 2016 Apr;16(4):591-8. doi: 10.1002/mabi.201500347. Epub 2016 Jan 12.


Polymicrobial biofilm-associated implant infections present a challenging clinical problem. Through modifications of lyophilized chitosan sponges, degradable drug delivery devices for antibiotic solution have been fabricated for prevention and treatment of contaminated musculoskeletal wounds. Elution of amikacin, vancomycin, or a combination of both follows a burst release pattern with vancomycin released above minimum inhibitory concentration for Staphylococcus aureus for 72 h and amikacin released above inhibitory concentrations for Pseudomonas aeruginosa for 3 h. Delivery of a vancomycin, amikacin, or a combination of both reduces biofilm formation on polytetrafluoroethylene catheters in an in vivo model of contamination. Release of dual antibiotics from sponges is more effective at preventing biofilm formation than single-loaded chitosan sponges. Treatment of pre-formed biofilm with high-dose antibiotic release from chitosan sponges shows minimal reduction after 48 h. These results demonstrate infection-preventive efficacy for antibiotic-loaded sponges, as well as the need for modifications in the development of advanced materials to enhance treatment efficacy in removing established biofilm.

Keywords: antibiotics; chitosan; drug delivery; infection; lyophilization; polymer brush.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Acetates / chemistry
  • Amikacin / chemistry
  • Amikacin / pharmacology
  • Animals
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Biofilms / drug effects*
  • Biofilms / growth & development
  • Catheter-Related Infections / drug therapy*
  • Catheter-Related Infections / microbiology
  • Catheters / microbiology
  • Chitosan / chemistry*
  • Delayed-Action Preparations
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Drug Compounding
  • Drug Liberation
  • Freeze Drying
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Polytetrafluoroethylene
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / drug effects*
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / physiology
  • Skin
  • Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects*
  • Staphylococcus aureus / physiology
  • Vancomycin / chemistry
  • Vancomycin / pharmacology


  • Acetates
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Delayed-Action Preparations
  • Vancomycin
  • Amikacin
  • Polytetrafluoroethylene
  • Chitosan