Impact of Vitamin D Status on Cardiometabolic Complications among Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2016 Mar 5;8(1):48-54. doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.2266. Epub 2015 Dec 18.


Objective: There is an ongoing interest in the relationship between vitamin D status and diabetes control and complications. However, data from Saudi Arabia are limited. To determine the impact of vitamin D status on glycemic control and cardiometabolic complications of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) attending a tertiary care diabetes clinic in Saudi Arabia.

Methods: Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data of 301 children and adolescent subjects with T1DM (53.5% females) of a mean age of 13.9 years attending King Abdulaziz Medical City-Jeddah during 2010-2013 were retrospectively collected. Relationships between vitamin D status and frequency of hypoglycemia, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and lipid profile were evaluated.

Results: The mean duration of diabetes was 7.7±3.7 years. Mean BMI value was 21.1±4.5 kg/m2 and HbA1c was 9.6±1.9% in both genders. Only 26.2% of the patients had a satisfactory HbA1c level. The mean level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was 35.15 and that of cholesterol was 4.75. Vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D≤37.5 nmol/L] was detected in 63.6% of the male and 67.7% of the female subjects. In males, it was inversely associated with frequency of hypoglycemia (p<0.01), BMI (p<0.05), diastolic blood pressure (p<0.05), and triglyceride levels (p<0.01), while in females, it was inversely associated with current age (p<0.05), age at diagnosis (p<0.01), and triglyceride levels (p<0.01). No significant correlation between HbA1c and vitamin D deficiency was observed.

Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent in our study sample and was found to be associated with frequency of hypoglycemic episodes and with adverse cardiometabolic control.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / physiopathology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / analysis
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / etiology*
  • Prevalence
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Saudi Arabia / epidemiology
  • Vitamin D / adverse effects
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / epidemiology
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / etiology*


  • Biomarkers
  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human
  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D