Bloodstream infections after solid-organ transplantation

Virulence. 2016 Apr 2;7(3):329-40. doi: 10.1080/21505594.2016.1139279. Epub 2016 Jan 14.


Solid-organ transplantation (SOT) has become the preferred strategy to treat a number of end-stage organ disease, because a continuous improvement in survival and quality of life. While preventive strategies has decreased the risk for classical opportunistic infections (such as viral, fungal and parasite infections), bacterial infections, and particularly bloodstream infections (BSIs) remain the most common and life-threatening complications in SOT recipients. The source of BSI after transplant depends on the type of transplantation, being urinary tract infection, pneumonia, and intraabdominal infections the most common infections occurring after kidney, lung and liver transplantation, respectively. The risk for candidemia is higher in abdominal-organ than in thoracic-organ transplantation. Currently, the increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative pathogens, such as extended-spectrum betalactamase-producing Enterobacteriaciae and carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, is causing particular concerns in SOT recipients, a population which presents several risk factors for developing infections due to MDR organisms. The application of strict preventive policies to reduce the incidence of post transplant BSIs and to control the spread of MDR organisms, including the implementation of specific stewardship programs to avoid the overuse of antibiotics and antifungal drugs, are essential steps to reduce the impact of post transplant infections on allograft and patient outcomes.

Keywords: Candida infection; bloodstream infections; immunosuppression; multi-drug resistant organisms; surgical complications.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / adverse effects
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Bacteremia / epidemiology*
  • Bacteremia / etiology*
  • Bacteremia / microbiology
  • Candidemia / drug therapy
  • Candidemia / etiology
  • Candidemia / microbiology
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
  • Enterobacteriaceae / drug effects
  • Enterobacteriaceae / isolation & purification
  • Humans
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae / drug effects
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae / isolation & purification
  • Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology
  • Opportunistic Infections / etiology
  • Opportunistic Infections / microbiology*
  • Organ Transplantation / adverse effects*
  • Pneumonia / etiology
  • Pneumonia / microbiology
  • Postoperative Complications / epidemiology*
  • Quality of Life
  • Risk Factors
  • Urinary Tract Infections / etiology
  • Urinary Tract Infections / microbiology


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents