PHLPP2 down regulation influences nuclear Nrf2 stability via Akt-1/Gsk3β/Fyn kinase axis in acetaminophen induced oxidative renal toxicity: Protection accorded by morin

Food Chem Toxicol. 2016 Mar;89:19-31. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2016.01.001. Epub 2016 Jan 6.


NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a cap 'n' collar (CNC) basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor that imparts cellular defence against xenobiotic and oxidative stress evoked responses by inducing an array of cytoprotective genes. Essential factors that regulate Nrf2 activity and stability during analgesic nephropathy are incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate that acetaminophen (a classic analgesic) posit nephrotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo via PHLPP2 activation. Enhanced PHLPP2 levels down regulate p-Akt by dephosphorylating it at Ser 473 residue leading to Gsk3β activation. APAP subsided Nrf2 nuclear accumulation by activating Gsk3β which phosphorylates Fyn kinase. p-Fyn kinase translocates into the nucleus and phosphorylates Nrf2 (Tyr 568) leading to its nuclear export, ubiquitination and degradation. Therefore, poor prognosis prevails during analgesic nephrotoxicity because of the defects in Akt-1/Gsk3β/Fyn-Nrf2 signaling pathway. Morin, a bioflavonoid given as co- and pre-treatment with acetaminophen significantly prevented the toxicity induced damage by constitutively stabilizing Nrf2 nuclear retention. Diminished Nrf2 levels by APAP overdose imposed severe proximal tubular damage leading to apoptotic cell death. Morin, as a potent Nrf2 inducer accorded protection against acetaminophen induced renal damages by its molecular intervention with Akt-1/Gsk3β/Fyn kinase pathway via PHLPP2 de-activation.

Keywords: AN (analgesic nephropathy); Acetaminophen; Fyn kinase; Morin; Nrf2; Oxidative stress; PHLPP2.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetaminophen / toxicity*
  • Animals
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism*
  • Down-Regulation*
  • Flavonoids / administration & dosage*
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 / metabolism*
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta
  • Kidney / drug effects*
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • NF-E2-Related Factor 2 / metabolism*
  • Oxidative Stress*
  • Phosphoprotein Phosphatases / metabolism*
  • Phosphorylation
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn / metabolism*
  • Rats


  • Flavonoids
  • NF-E2-Related Factor 2
  • Nfe2l2 protein, rat
  • Acetaminophen
  • morin
  • Fyn protein, rat
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta
  • Gsk3b protein, rat
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
  • PHLPP2 protein, rat
  • Phosphoprotein Phosphatases