The effects of menstrual cycle phase (early follicular vs. midluteal) and menstrual status (eumenorrhea vs. amenorrhea) on plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP), renin activity (PRA), and aldosterone (ALDO) were studied before and after 40 min of submaximal running (80% maximal O2 uptake). Eumenorrheic runners were studied in the early follicular and midluteal phases determined by urinary luteinizing hormone and progesterone and plasma estradiol and progesterone assays; amenorrheic runners were studied once. Menstrual phase was associated with no significant differences in preexercise plasma AVP or PRA, but ALDO levels were significantly higher during the midluteal phase than the early follicular phase. Plasma AVP and PRA were significantly elevated at 4 min after the 40-min run in the eumenorrheic runners during both menstrual phases and returned to preexercise levels by 40 min after exercise. Plasma ALDO responses at 4 and 40 min after exercise were higher in the midluteal phase than the early follicular phase. Menstrual status was associated with no significant differences in preexercise AVP or PRA; however, ALDO levels were significantly higher in the amenorrheic runners. After exercise, responses in the amenorrheic runners were comparable with the eumenorrheic runners during the early follicular phase. Thus, submaximal exercise elicits significant increases in plasma AVP and PRA independent of menstrual phase and status. However, plasma ALDO is significantly elevated during the midluteal phase, exercise results in a greater response during this menstrual phase, and amenorrheic runners have elevated resting levels of ALDO.