Content Validity for a Child Care Self-assessment Tool: Creating Healthy Eating Environments Scale (CHEERS)

Can J Diet Pract Res. 2016 Jun;77(2):89-92. doi: 10.3148/cjdpr-2015-041. Epub 2016 Jan 15.


The purpose of this project was to develop and content validate both a formative and summative self-assessment scale designed to measure the nutrition and physical activity environment in community-based child care programs. The study followed a mixed-method modified Ebel procedure. An expert group with qualifications in nutrition, physical activity, and child care were recruited for content validation. The survey was subjected to expert review through digital communication followed by a face-to-face validation meeting. To establish consensus for content validity beyond the standard error of proportion (P < 0.05) the content validity index (CVI) required was ≥0.78. Of the initial 64 items, 44 scored an acceptable CVI for inclusion. The remaining items were discussed, missing concepts identified, and a final CVI employed to determine inclusion. The final tool included 62 items with 5 subscales: food served, healthy eating program planning, healthy eating environment, physical activity environment, and healthy body image environment. Content validation is an integral step in scale development that is often overlooked or poorly carried out. Initial content validity of this scale has been established and will be of value to researchers and practitioners interested in conducting healthy eating interventions in child care.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Body Image
  • Child Care*
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diet, Healthy*
  • Environment*
  • Exercise
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Nutritional Status
  • Pilot Projects
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Self-Assessment
  • Surveys and Questionnaires