Development and Validation of the Five-by-Five Resilience Scale

Assessment. 2017 Sep;24(6):778-797. doi: 10.1177/1073191115625803. Epub 2016 Jan 15.


This article introduces a new measure of resilience and five related protective factors. The Five-by-Five Resilience Scale (5×5RS) is developed on the basis of theoretical and empirical considerations. Two samples ( N = 475 and N = 613) are used to assess the factor structure, reliability, convergent validity, and criterion-related validity of the 5×5RS. Confirmatory factor analysis supports a bifactor model. The 5×5RS demonstrates adequate internal consistency as evidenced by Cronbach's alpha and empirical reliability estimates. The 5×5RS correlates positively with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), a commonly used measure of resilience. The 5×5RS exhibits similar criterion-related validity to the CD-RISC as evidenced by positive correlations with satisfaction with life, meaning in life, and secure attachment style as well as negative correlations with rumination and anxious or avoidant attachment styles. 5×5RS scores are positively correlated with healthy behaviors such as exercise and negatively correlated with sleep difficulty and symptomology of anxiety and depression. The 5×5RS incrementally explains variance in some criteria above and beyond the CD-RISC. Item responses are modeled using the graded response model. Information estimates demonstrate the ability of the 5×5RS to assess individuals within at least one standard deviation of the mean on relevant latent traits.

Keywords: measurement; resilience; validation.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological*
  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Emotions
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Health Behavior
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Personality Tests / standards*
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Resilience, Psychological*
  • Self Efficacy
  • Self Report
  • Social Support