Osteogenic potential of human adipose-tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on 3D-printed porous structured titanium

Gene. 2016 May 1;581(2):95-106. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2016.01.015. Epub 2016 Jan 13.


Integration of porous metal prosthetics, which restore form and function of irreversibly damaged joints, into remaining healthy bone is critical for implant success. We investigated the biological properties of adipose-tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (AMSCs) and addressed their potential to alter the in vitro microenvironment of implants. We employed human AMSCs as a practical source for musculoskeletal applications because these cells can be obtained in large quantities, are multipotent, and have trophic paracrine functions. AMSCs were cultured on surgical-grade porous titanium disks as a model for orthopedic implants. We monitored cell/substrate attachment, cell proliferation, multipotency, and differentiation phenotypes of AMSCs upon osteogenic induction. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy and histology revealed that AMSCs adhere to the porous metallic surface. Compared to standard tissue culture plastic, AMSCs grown in the porous titanium microenvironment showed differences in temporal expression for genes involved in cell cycle progression (CCNB2, HIST2H4), extracellular matrix production (COL1A1, COL3A1), mesenchymal lineage identity (ACTA2, CD248, CD44), osteoblastic transcription factors (DLX3, DLX5, ID3), and epigenetic regulators (EZH1, EZH2). We conclude that metal orthopedic implants can be effectively seeded with clinical-grade stem/stromal cells to create a pre-conditioned implant.

Keywords: Biomaterial; Extracellular matrix; Gene expression; Mesenchymal stem cell; Scanning electron microscopy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue / cytology*
  • Adipose Tissue / pathology
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Humans
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / cytology*
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / metabolism
  • Osteogenesis*
  • Printing, Three-Dimensional*
  • Tissue Culture Techniques / methods*
  • Titanium / chemistry*


  • Biomarkers
  • Titanium