Background: Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) and collagen membranes (CMs) are simultaneously applied in regenerative periodontal surgery. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of two CMs and a collagen matrix to adsorb the activity intrinsic to EMD that provokes transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling in oral fibroblasts.
Methods: Three commercially available collagen products were exposed to EMD or recombinant TGF-β1, followed by vigorous washing. Oral fibroblasts were either seeded directly onto collagen products or were incubated with the respective supernatant. Expression of TGF-β target genes interleukin (IL)-11 and proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) was evaluated by real time polymerase chain reaction. Proteomic analysis was used to study the fraction of EMD proteins binding to collagen.
Results: EMD or TGF-β1 provoked a significant increase of IL-11 and PRG4 expression of oral fibroblasts when seeded onto collagen products and when incubated with the respective supernatant. Gene expression was blocked by the TGF-β receptor I kinase inhibitor SB431542. Amelogenin bound most abundantly to gelatin-coated culture dishes. However, incubation of palatal fibroblasts with recombinant amelogenin did not alter expression of IL-11 and PRG4.
Conclusion: These in vitro findings suggest that collagen products adsorb a TGF-β receptor I kinase-dependent activity of EMD and make it available for potential target cells.
Keywords: Collagen; gene expression; guided tissue regeneration; interleukin-11; proteoglycans; transforming growth factor beta1.