Crucial parameter of the outcome in Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever: Viral load

J Clin Virol. 2016 Feb;75:42-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2015.12.006. Epub 2016 Jan 4.


Background: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a fatal disease with a mortality rate of 5-30%. CCHF can be asymptomatic or it may progress with bleeding and cause mortality.

Objectives: To evaluate relation of viral load with mortality, clinical and laboratory findings in CCHF.

Study design: A total of 126 CCHF patients were included. Serum samples obtained from all patients on admission for measurement of viral load.

Results: In our study, mortality rate was 11.1%. The most important prognostic factor was viral load. Mean viral load was 8.3×10(7)copy/ml and 4.6×10(9)copy/ml in survived and dead patients, respectively (p<0.005). Probability of survival is found to be significantly reduced where AST >1130U/l, ALT >490U/l, CPK >505U/l, LDH >980U/l, platelet count <23×10(3)/l, creatinine >1.4mg/dl, INR >1.3, d-dimer >7100ng/dl, and viral load >1.03×10(8)copy/ml. Patients with 10(8)copy/ml or higher viral load had diarrhea, headache, unconsciousness, bleeding, and seizure significantly more frequently (p<0.05). WBC, hemoglobin, platelet counts were significantly lower whereas AST, ALT, CPK, LDH, creatinine levels, PT and aPTT time, d-dimer levels, and INR were found to be significantly higher in these group.

Conclusions: There are several severity criteria for prognosis of CCHF. In addition to these parameters, we introduce creatinine as a predictive factor for prognosis. Our study, which has the largest number of patients among studies that evaluate viral load on CCHF shows that viral load is the most effective parameter on mortality.

Keywords: Creatinine; Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever; Mortality; Prognosis; Viral load.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biomarkers
  • Creatinine*
  • Female
  • Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products
  • Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo*
  • Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean / blood
  • Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean / mortality*
  • Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean / virology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mortality
  • Platelet Count
  • Prognosis
  • Survival Analysis
  • Viral Load*


  • Biomarkers
  • Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products
  • fibrin fragment D
  • Creatinine