The Role of mGluR Copy Number Variation in Genetic and Environmental Forms of Syndromic Autism Spectrum Disorder

Sci Rep. 2016 Jan 19;6:19372. doi: 10.1038/srep19372.

Abstract

While abnormal signaling mediated through metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is involved in the pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Fragile X Syndrome and Tuberous Sclerosis, the role of other mGluRs and their associated signaling network genes in syndromic ASD is unknown. This study sought to determine whether mGluR Copy Number Variants (CNV's) were overrepresented in children with syndromic ASD and if mGluR "second hit" confers additional risk for ASD in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS). To determine whether mGluR network CNV'S are enriched in syndromic ASD, we examined microarrays from children with ASD (n = 539). Patient categorization (syndromic vs nonsyndromic) was done via blinded medical chart review in mGluR positive and randomly selected mGluR negative cases. 11.5% of ASD had mGluR CNV's vs. 3.2% in controls (p < 0.001). Syndromic ASD was more prevalent in children with mGluR CNVs (74% vs 16%, p < 0.001). A comparison cohort with 22q11DS (n = 25 with ASD, n = 50 without ASD), all haploinsufficient for mGluR network gene RANBP1, were evaluated for "second mGluR hits". 20% with 22q11.2DS + ASD had "second hits" in mGluR network genes vs 2% in 22q11.2DS-ASD (p < 0.014). We propose that altered RANBP1 expression may provide a mechanistic link for several seemingly unrelated genetic and environmental forms of ASD.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Autism Spectrum Disorder / diagnosis
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder / etiology*
  • Chromosome Deletion
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22
  • DNA Copy Number Variations*
  • Gene Dosage*
  • Gene-Environment Interaction*
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease*
  • Humans
  • Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate / genetics*
  • Risk
  • Syndrome

Substances

  • Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate