PEGylated Bovine Carboxyhemoglobin (SANGUINATE™): Results of Clinical Safety Testing and Use in Patients

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;876:461-467. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3023-4_58.


Oxygen transfer agents have long been sought as a means to treat hypoxia caused by congenital or acquired conditions. Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers were in clinical development as blood substitutes, but development was halted due to the finding of significant vasoactivity. Rather than develop a blood substitute, a product for indications characterized by hypoxia is in development. PEGylated bovine carboxyhemoglobin (SANGUINATE™) is both a carbon monoxide releasing molecule and an oxygen transfer agent. It is comprised of three functional components that act to inhibit vasoconstriction, reduce inflammation and optimize the delivery of oxygen. SANGUINATE has the potential to reduce or prevent the effects of ischemia by inhibiting vasoconstriction and re-oxygenating tissue. Phase 1 safety trials in healthy volunteers were completed in 2013. SANGUINATE was shown to be safe and well tolerated with no serious adverse effects. Phase Ib studies have been completed in stable patients with Sickle Cell Disease. SANGUINATE has also been administered to two patients under emergency use protocols. Both patients exhibited improved status following treatment with SANGUINATE.

Keywords: Clinical; Hypoxia; Ischemia; SANGUINATE; Safety.

MeSH terms

  • Blood Substitutes / adverse effects
  • Blood Substitutes / pharmacology*
  • Carboxyhemoglobin / analogs & derivatives
  • Carboxyhemoglobin / pharmacology*
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Humans


  • Blood Substitutes
  • Carboxyhemoglobin